We introduce a canonical representation of call options, and propose a solution to two open problems in option pricing theory. The first problem was posed by (Kassouf, 1969, pg. 694) seeking “theoretical substantiation” for his robust option pricing power law which eschewed assumptions about risk attitudes, rejected risk neutrality, and made no assumptions about stock price distribution. The second problem was posed by (Scott, 1987, pp. 423-424) who could not find a unique solution to the call option price in his option pricing model with stochastic volatility–without appealing to an equilibrium asset pricing model by Hull and White (1987), and concluded: “[w]e cannot determine the price of a call option without knowing the price of another call on the same stock”. First, we show that under certain conditions derivative assets are superstructures of the underlying. Hence any option pricing or derivative pricing model in a given number field, based on an anticipating variable in an extended field, with coefficients in a subfield containing the underlying, is admissible for market timing. For the anticipating variable is an algebraic number that generates the subfield in which it is the root of an equation. Accordingly, any polynomial which satisfies those criteria is admissible for price discovery and or market timing. Therefore, at least for empirical purposes, elaborate models of mathematical physics or otherwise are unnecessary for pricing derivatives because much simpler adaptive polynomials in suitable algebraic numbers are functionally equivalent. Second, we prove, analytically, that Kassouf (1969) power law specification for option pricing is functionally equivalent to Black and Scholes (1973); Merton (1973) in an algebraic number field containing the underlying. In fact, we introduce a canonical polynomial representation theory of call option pricing convex in time to maturity, and algebraic number of the underlying–with coefficients based on observables in a subfield. Thus, paving the way for Wold decomposition of option prices, and subsequently laying a theoretical foundation for a GARCH option pricing model. Third, our canonical representation theory has an inherent regenerative multifactor decomposition of call option price that (1) induces a duality theorem for call option prices, and (2) permits estimation of risk factor exposure for Greeks by standard [polynomial] regression procedures. Thereby providing a theoretical (a) basis for option pricing of Greeks, and (b) solving Scott’s dual call option problem a fortiori with our duality theory in tandem with Riesz representation theory. Fourth, when the Wold decomposition procedure is applied we are able to construct an empirical pricing kernel for call option based on residuals from a model of risk exposure to persistent and transient risk factors.
Cadogan, Godfrey, "Canonical Representation Of Option Prices and Greeks with Implications for Market Timing" (2010). The Institute for Innovation and Technology Management. Paper 4.