Research

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  • A Journey of Her Own : A critical analysis of learning experiences among immigrant women: assessing transformative learning and women’s resilience in community-based education programs
    A Journey of Her Own : A critical analysis of learning experiences among immigrant women: assessing transformative learning and women’s resilience in community-based education programs
    This is a qualitative study that provides insight into the learning experiences of internationally-trained professional women from Israel, Iran, and the countries of the former USSR. The study focuses on analysing women’s transformative learning experiences and how those experiences may impact their resilience and well-being. The findings of this research inform the development of learner-oriented community-based programs for immigrant women and provide an opportunity for critical reflection on predominant assumptions about immigrant women. In addition, this study challenges the “deficient immigrant” approach and explores the concept of women’s empowerment in relation to cultural contexts and gender-power dynamics that influence immigrant women’s resettlement and learning. Keywords: immigrant women’s learning, transformative learning, immigrant women’s resettlement, empowerment, resilience, critical feminist theory
    A Latin-American Parents' Group Participates in their Children's Schooling: Parent Involvement Reconsidered
    A Latin-American Parents' Group Participates in their Children's Schooling: Parent Involvement Reconsidered
    Online version of an article originally published as: Bernhard, J. K., Freire, M., Pacini-Ketchabaw, V. & Villanueva, V. (1998). A Latin American parents' group participates in their children's schooling: Parent involvement reconsidered. Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal 30(3):77-98. Publisher URL: https://go.gale.com/ps/anonymous?id=GALE%7CA82883437&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=00083496&p=AONE&sw=w
    A Logic For Decidable Reasoning About Actions
    A Logic For Decidable Reasoning About Actions
    We consider a modified version of the situation calculus built using a two-variable fragment of the first-order logic extended with counting quantifiers. We mention several additional groups of axioms that can be introduced to capture taxonomic reasoning. We show that the regression operator in this framework can be defined similarly to regression in Reiter’s version of the situation calculus. Using this new regression operator, we show that the projection and executability problems (the important reasoning tasks in the situation calculus) are decidable in the modified version even if an initial knowledge base is incomplete. We also discuss the complexity of solving the projection problem in this modified language in general. Furthermore, we define description logic based sub-languages of our modified situation calculus. They are based on the description logics ALCO(U) (or ALCQO(U), respectively). We show that in these sub-languages solving the projection problem has better computational complexity than in the general modified situation calculus. We mention possible applications to formalization of Semantic Web services and some connections with reasoning about actions based on description logics.
    A Matter of Choice : a Critical Discourse Analysis of ECEC Policy in Canada's 2006 Federal Election
    A Matter of Choice : a Critical Discourse Analysis of ECEC Policy in Canada's 2006 Federal Election
    This paper used a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to analyze the representation of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in the 2006 federal election in Canada. Using Fairclough's approach to CDA, the study analyzed written documents including newspaper articles from The Globe and Mail and The National Post, the policy platforms of the Liberal and conservative parties, and political speeches from party leaders. The "choice" discourse was found to be dominant in the majority of texts examined. A dominant discourse is one that is created and sustained by those with power thus contributing to hegemony in society. Three textual and discourse processes were found to legitimize the "choice" discourse and contribute to its dominance: rationalization, nominalization and conversationalization. It is suggested that the language used in public documents throughout this election and the subsequent dominance of the "choice" discourse may have had a significant impact on citizens' understanding and appreciation of the complexities of the ECEC issue., Richardson, B., & University of Toronto. Childcare Resource and Research Unit. (2011). A matter of choice: A critical discourse analysis of ECEC policy in canada's 2006 federal election Childcare Resource and Research Unit.
    A Method for Design of Modular Reconfigurable Machine Tools
    A Method for Design of Modular Reconfigurable Machine Tools
    Presented in this paper is a method for the design of modular reconfigurable machine tools (MRMTs). An MRMT is capable of using a minimal number of modules through reconfiguration to perform the required machining tasks for a family of parts. The proposed method consists of three steps: module identification, module determination, and layout synthesis. In the first step, the module components are collected from a family of general-purpose machines to establish a module library. In the second step, for a given family of parts to be machined, a set of needed modules are selected from the module library to construct a desired reconfigurable machine tool. In the third step, a final machine layout is decided though evaluation by considering a number of performance indices. Based on this method, a software package has been developed that can design an MRMT for a given part family., Xu, Z., Xi, F., Liu, L., & Chen, L. (2017). A method for design of modular reconfigurable machine tools. Machines, 5(1), 5., This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotic Machine Tools.
    A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study
    A Novel Glass Polyalkenoate Cement for Fixation and Stabilisation of the Ribcage, Post Sternotomy Surgery: An ex-Vivo Study
    This study investigates the use of gallium (Ga) based glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) as a possible alternative adhesive in sternal fixation, post sternotomy surgery. The glass series consists of a Control (CaO–ZnO–SiO2), and LGa-1 and LGa-2 which contain Ga at the expense of zinc (Zn) in 0.08 mol% increments. The additions of Ga resulted in increased working time (75 s to 137 s) and setting time (113 to 254 s). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that this was a direct result of increased unreacted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the reduction of crosslink formation during cement maturation. LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) resulted in an altered ion release profile, particularly for 30 days analysis, with maximum Ca2+, Zn2+, Si4+ and Ga3+ ions released into the distilled water. The additions of Ga resulted in increased roughness and decreased contact angles during cement maturation. The presence of Ga has a positive effect on the compressive strength of the samples with strengths increasing over 10 MPa at 7 days analysis compared to the 1 day results. The additions of Ga had relatively no effect on the flexural strength. Tensile testing of bovine sterna proved that the LGa samples (0.16 wt % Ga) are comparable to the Control samples., Alhalawani, A. M. F., Curran, D. J., Pingguan-Murphy, B., Boyd, D., & Towler, M. R. (2013). A novel glass polyalkenoate cement for fixation and stabilisation of the ribcage, post sternotomy surgery: An ex-vivo study. Journal of Functional Biomaterials, 4(4), 329-357. doi:10.3390/jfb4040329
    A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex
    A Novel Technique to Determine Concentration-Dependent Solvent Dispersion in Vapex
    Vapex (vapor extraction of heavy oil and bitumen) is a promising recovery technology because it consumes low energy, and is very environmentally-friendly. The dispersion of solvents into heavy oil and bitumen is a crucial transport property governing Vapex. The accurate determination of solvent dispersion in Vapex is essential to effectively predict the amount and time scale of oil recovery as well to optimize the field operations. In this work, a novel technique is developed to experimentally determine the concentration-dependent dispersion coefficient of a solvent in Vapex process. The principles of variational calculus are utilized in conjunction with a mass transfer model of the experimental Vapex process. A computational algorithm is developed to optimally compute solvent dispersion as a function of its concentration in heavy oil. The developed technique is applied to Vapex utilizing propane as a solvent. The results show that dispersion of propane is a unimodal function of its concentration in bitumen., Abukhalifeh, H., Lohi, A., & Upreti, S. R. (2009). A novel technique to determine concentration-dependent solvent dispersion in vapex. Energies, 2(4), 851-872. doi:10.3390/en20400851
    A Picturesque Photographic Tour Through Scotland
    A Picturesque Photographic Tour Through Scotland
    Originally published in: genre: An International Journal of Literature and the Arts, Vol 29: Arrivals and Departures. Ed. by Whitney Donaldson. Long Beach, California: California State University Department of Comparative Literature & Classics, 2009. Also available at the publisher's website: http://www.cla.csulb.edu/departments/complit/genre-journal/
    A Qualitative Framework for Evaluating Participation on the Geoweb
    A Qualitative Framework for Evaluating Participation on the Geoweb
    The participatory Geoweb emerges from the synthesis of map-based online applications and Web 2.0 concepts such as user-generated content, enhanced interactivity, and cloud computing. The result is a wide range of tools and projects using these tools to communicate, collaborate, deliberate, and inform spatial decision making. This article draws upon the literature in participatory geographic information systems to propose the “3E Framework,” which provides both a structured conceptual model and a practical tool for the evaluation of projects on the participatory Geoweb. The framework deconstructs participation on the Geoweb into the provider and public realms and represents the engagement, empowerment, and enactment processes. It includes 20 evaluation questions that are derived from themes in the literature., Full journal issue is open-access and available at http://www.urisa.org/resources/urisa-journal/. Download option provides an excerpt including journal title page, ToC, and this article only.
    A Religion like No Other: Islam and the Limits of Multiculturalism in Canada
    A Religion like No Other: Islam and the Limits of Multiculturalism in Canada
    Introduction: In survey after survey, Canadians express strong support for the maintenance of relatively high levels of immigration and a policy of official multiculturalism. Canadian governments have long pursued aggressive immigration policies and, since 1971, have overseen a policy of official state multiculturalism. Public opinion in other industrialized democracies has been less supportive of immigration and, at least rhetorically, governments have been critical of multiculturalism. In this sense, references to "Canadian exceptionalism" in the sphere of immigration and multiculturalism politics and policy are credible. Canadians' support for immigration and multiculturalism has not, however, translated into an easy-going acceptance of demands for religious accommodation. This is especially true with respect to Islam. Public opinion toward Muslims is strikingly negative and efforts at meeting requests for accommodation have been resisted, at times strenuously. In this respect, Canada is anything but exceptional; attitudes toward Islam and Muslims are depressingly familiar. Our paper marks an attempt to make sense of this puzzling contradiction. How are we to understand the popularity of multiculturalism in Canada, on the one hand, and the frequency (and vociferousness) of anti-Muslim sentiment on the other? How can we begin to understand Canadians' exceptionalism with respect to support for immigration and multiculturalism and more typical antipathy toward Islam and Muslims? In an effort to address these questions, we advance a two-pronged argument. First, it is important to recognize that Islam is not just another minority religion. The stigma attached to Islam in Canada and other industrialized democracies is unique. Islam is cast by its critics as an existential challenge to liberal democratic states - a remnant of unenlightened, premodern thinking that is out of place in contemporary liberal societies. Second, we maintain that debates over religious accommodation in Canada trigger concern over the maintenance a particular mode of national identity, centered on liberal-democratic values and, ironically, multicultural tolerance. Intolerance of Islam is justified on behalf of protecting a secular, tolerant, liberal-democratic public ethos against a putatively premodern, intolerant and illiberal enemy. In a peculiar way, then, support for multiculturalism may inform opposition to Islam. After briefly touching on how immigration is changing Canada's religious landscape, we survey public opinion data on immigration, multiculturalism, and Islam. We then turn to practical manifestations of Islamophobia, including the troubling rise in anti-Muslim hate crimes. We go on to explore how anti-Muslim attitudes and behavior can thrive in a country defined by its commitment to multiculturalism. Drawing on Hannah Arendt's analysis of antisemitism in The Origins of Totalitarianism (1973), we argue that that fear of Islam is rooted in the history of the recent past, particularly as regards debates over immigrant integration that have been conducted against the backdrop of the so-called "war on terror." Anti-Muslim activists have exacerbated this fear by framing questions of integration in existential terms, whereby the compromises intrinsic to accommodation represent nothing less than a mortal threat to liberal democracy. We conclude by asking Canadians' conflicting views on immigration, multiculturalism and Islam have influenced electoral politics. We note that Canadian parties, particularly those on the Right, face a quandary. On the one hand, institutional dynamics which amplify the weight of new Canadians in electoral politics rule out heavy-handed attacks on multiculturalism; on the other, the deep well of anti-Muslim sentiment in Canada offers a tempting means of securing short term political advantages. We illustrate this dynamic through brief references to the 2015 and 2019 federal elections and the Conservative Party's 2016-17 leadership campaign., Triadafilopoulos, T. & Jameela Rasheed. (2020). A Religion like No Other: Islam and the Limits of Multiculturalism in Canada. Ryerson Centre for Immigration and Settlement (RCIS) and the CERC in Migration and Integration.