Undergraduate

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  • A new woman's venture:  linking a little magazine to the suffrage atelier
    A new woman's venture: linking a little magazine to the suffrage atelier
    The Venture: An Annual of Art and Literature, a little magazine edited by Somerset Maugham and Laurence Housman, was published in 1903 by John Baillie in London and in 1905 by The Arden Press in Leamington. The magazine made its debut at a time when new sociopolitical ideas of femininity began to pervade literature and public discourse. Although its co-editors were both men, Maugham was a supporter of women’s suffrage and Housman was notable for his activism, acting as a central figure in the Men’s League for Women’s Suffrage established in 1907. The Venture presented Maugham and Housman with the opportunity to use their authority as editors to participate in broader social and political affairs. Expressed throughout the magazine is a special attention to feminism; the literary and art contents examine the varying experiences of modern women in Victorian society, and as a whole, the magazine works to promote and celebrate the achievements of New Women. The curation of feminist work in The Venture is unlikely a coincidence, and it would be a mistake to dismiss it as such. This analysis aims to demonstrate that Maugham and Housman edited The Venture with a primarily feminist agenda in order to promote women’s suffrage, and inspire curiosity, individuality, and activism in Victorian women., Fraschetti, E. (2019, October) A new woman's venture: linking a little magazine to the suffrage atelier. Poster session presented at The Undergraduate Research Opportunities (URO) Program, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON
    Aerodynamic Optimization of the Von Karman Nose Cone for a Supersonic Sounding Rocket
    Aerodynamic Optimization of the Von Karman Nose Cone for a Supersonic Sounding Rocket
    Nose cone design is very much reliant on the conditions of the rocket’s flight path. The design is dependant on the altitude, velocity profile, materials, and other factors. This report will look at optimizing a rocket nose cone design based on preliminary measurements, aerodynamic factors, and engineering design process. This analysis will be done utilizing ANSYS Fluent to conduct CFD on 2D symmetric Von Karman nose cones of varying fineness ratios.
    Artificial Neural Network Hyperparameter Effectiveness Determination And Optimization Algorithm
    Artificial Neural Network Hyperparameter Effectiveness Determination And Optimization Algorithm
    Machine learning models can contain many layers and branches. Each branch and layer, contain individual variables, know as hyperparameters, that require manual tuning. For instance, the genetic algorithm designed by Unit Amin [2] was designed to mimic the reproductive process of living organisms. The genetic algorithm and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) training processes contain inherent randomness that reduces the replicability of results. Combined with the sheer magnitude of hyperparameter permutations, confidence that model has arrived at the best solution may be low. The algorithm designed for this thesis was designed to isolate portions of a complex ANN model and generate results showing the effect each hyperparameter has on the performance of the model as a whole. The results of this thesis show that the algorithm effectively generates data correlating model performance to hyperparameter selection. This is evident in section 3.1, and 3.2, where it is shown that using the sigmoid activation function with CNN layers, regardless of the number of filters, or hyperparameters used in the subsequent LSTM layers, produces superior RMSE scores. Section 3.2 also reveals that the model does not improve in performance as the number of CNN and LSTM layers are added to the model. Finally, the results in section 3.3 show that the rmsprop optimizer generates superior results regardless of the hyperparameters used in the rest of the model.
    Bio Modelling For Comfort Aircraft Chair Design
    Bio Modelling For Comfort Aircraft Chair Design
    The work presented in this report is to help develop and complete the methodology that can quickly predict the pressure distribution and estimate the comfortability of the aircraft seat. For this thesis, the human back and spine are introduced and modelled as the focus is only on the backrest of the aircraft seat. The bio modelling of the back and spine consists of the geometry including the spine curvature and back shape at various conditions. The variables include the body type of the sitter, the sitting posture and the backrest recline angle. Multiple cases of the body condition combining the these mentioned variables were modelled, which generates a comparatively inclusive human model for the future work of pressure distribution analysis. The initial building of the spine curve is based on an existing spine data, and the back shape is captured by experiments using 3D scanning technology. Forces acting on the spine are also obtained as a part of the modelling. With this more complete the inclusive bio model of the body, the pattern of the contact and pressure can then determine a more efficient configuration of cushion or aircraft seat innovation and design to achieve a better comfort.
    Brothers in the kitchen:  the uprising, exodus and survival of a Tamily minority
    Brothers in the kitchen: the uprising, exodus and survival of a Tamily minority
    Brothers In the Kitchen (BiTk), is a site-specific live-documentary performed with an audience inside a fully operational restaurant. The triumvirate of story, performance, and audience is used to create an interactive and immersive documentary experience incorporating oral storytelling, poetry, dance, music, archival materials and television— all performed live. BiTk is the story of the uprising, exodus and survival of Tamil Sri Lankan citizens who fled a brutal civil war and sought refuge in Canada. The ethnic conflict, between the Buddhist Sinhala majority and the Hindu Tamil minority, sparked a mass exodus following the deadly riots of Black July in 1983. Subsequently, a staggering 300,000 Tamils found asylum in Canada. Soon an inordinate number of them began work as cooks and dishwashers in many Canadian restaurants. This live documentary is performed thirty years after the arrival of the first boatload of Tamil refugees, found adrift off the coast of Newfoundland, in 1986.
    Closing Canada's digital divide:  a review of policies in Canada and abroad
    Closing Canada's digital divide: a review of policies in Canada and abroad
    This paper explores Canada’s telecommunications policy landscape, with an aim of evaluating its effect on Canada’s digital divide. It looks into decisions made by the CRTC and ISED (and its predecessors), which have influenced the development of broadband infrastructure in Canada. This paper also evaluates the efficacy of digital literacy training programs, aimed at allowing Canadians to leverage connectivity. Finally, it concludes with a discussion about how the Innovation Agenda can be used as a mechanism to narrow Canada’s digital divide.
    Computed tomography airway tree tortuosity features predict functional small airway disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Computed tomography airway tree tortuosity features predict functional small airway disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Over 1 000 000 Canadians are diagnosed with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and by 2020 the disease will be the third deadliest on Earth. Despite high prevalence, diagnosis of COPD occurs late in the disease course, after a large portion of the small airways are destroyed. Current methods to quantify small airway disease (SAD) using the Disease Probability Measure (DPM) approach requires CT images acquired at full inspiration and full expiration, and therefore there are technical challenges and dose concerns Computed Tomography (CT) imaging using only a single full inspiration CT image can be used segment the central airway tree and generate quantitative morphometric measurements., Genkin, D., Aslam, D., Bartlett, J., Coxson, H., Tan, Wan C., Hogg,...Kirby, M. (2019, October) Computed tomography airway tree tortuosity features predict functional small airway disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Poster session presented at The Undergraduate Research Opportunities (URO) Program, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON.
    Contemporary Accounting Issues: Carbon Disclosures & Environmental Liabilities
    Contemporary Accounting Issues: Carbon Disclosures & Environmental Liabilities
    1.Legitimacy Theory 2.Introduction to GHG Accounting and Climate Related Risks 3.Users of Climate related Financial Disclosures 4.Task Force’s Recommendations on climate related Financial Disclosures 5.Climate related risks and opportunities (Based on TCFD & CDP) 6.Climate related Financial Disclosures Disclosure Guidance 7.TCFD’s Recommendations Status of Adoption 8.Environmental Liabilities ExxonMobil Case study, Cheng, A. (2019). Contemporary Accounting Issues: Carbon Disclosures & Environmental Liabilities [PowerPoint slides]
    Controller Tuning and Robustness Testing of Attitude Control Laws for a CubeSat Mission
    Controller Tuning and Robustness Testing of Attitude Control Laws for a CubeSat Mission
    The purpose of this project was to create a test environment that can be used to test different controllers and their robustness. In this report, the equations of motion were derived using kinematics, with attitude quaternions, and spacecraft dynamics, with angular velocity and acceleration. The equations were combined and placed into the form of a linearized state-space equation. The different control methods being investigated, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for the reaction wheel model, and the Bdot with bias controller, were explained and the block diagram for each was shown. To setup the test, the tolerances for the roll, pitch, and yaw, and their rates, were taken from the mission requirement for the ESSENCE mission. The attitude tolerance being ±0.5deg and the angular rates requirement being ±0.05deg/s. Then the test setup was further explained. The test is broken up into different scripts and steps: 1. Main run function for simulation. Initializes simulation parameters. 2. Build state-space equation and calculate constant gain matrix. 3. Randomize initial conditions and pass onto simulation. 4. Post-processing and plot generation. 5. Statistics generation. This robust testing environment was used to test 5 different controllers for the reaction wheel model. Each controller was tested for 200 different simulations, in which the initial attitude, initial angular rates, and the center of mass were randomized. The first controller was successful for 198/200 simulations, where the only failure came from over-saturating the reaction wheels. The next three controllers had a perfect record and were successful for all 200 simulations each. The last controller, had only 71 successful simulations in the set, and a sample of one of the failed simulations was further investigated to see how it failed.
    Design And Aerodynamic Analysis Of Compliant Mechanism Based Morphing Wings
    Design And Aerodynamic Analysis Of Compliant Mechanism Based Morphing Wings
    Aircraft today use discrete control surface, typically mounted using pin and sliding joints. These designs can lead to high part-count assemblies and backlash within the assemblies that require lubrication and frequent maintenance. These wing designs also feature fixed dimensions and do not allow for geometry changes mid-flight. These limitations lead to a compromised design that must work relatively well in all situations. This causes inefficiencies in all stages of flight. The Wright brothers, who achieved the first successful powered flight did not use these techniques. Instead they used a system on cables to apply tension and bend the wings to changes their angle of attack. They called this technique wing warping. As aviation advanced it quickly moved from the wing-warping technique towards the discrete element control surfaces. However, there is renewed interest in techniques such as wing warping as the idea of morphing wings becomes more prevalent in aerospace research. Morphing wings would allow for changing major characteristics, such as camber, span, sweep, etc. of the wing mid-flight and allow for continuous optimization through all stages of its mission. The design covered in this thesis was centered around camber morphing of the wing in flight. Biomimicry played a large role in the design, with research into the skeletal systems of birds and fish used to dictate the rib structures. This bio-inspired path led to the use of compliant mechanisms for the ribs. This choice allowed for a low part-count and zero-backlash design that would require no maintenance and have a very long service life due to an extremely low amount of fatigue. Several design iterations were tested with different common desktop 3-D printing materials. The final rib design was made of PETG and whose compliant shape was directly inspired by the skeletal structure of the spine of a fish. The design proved to be extremely reliable and robust. Skin design has long been one of the biggest hurdles of morphing wing design. Most research reviewed in this paper used an elastomer style skin that was pre-stretched to reduce buckling under compression. Through testing it was found that this method is difficult and unreliable to maintain a smooth and continuous surface. Even when pre-stretching, the elastomer would fatigue and buckle under compression. The final design was a PETG panel with a web and flange that would interact with the rib structure and was able to translate chordwise along the rib as the wing altered its camber. The skin had built-in flexures to reduce bending actuation forces. The wing also featured a rigid leading-edge skin panel with which the other skin panels would be able to slide under to maintain skin coverage under both extension and compression of the wing surfaces. This however led to aerodynamic problems that were discovered in the CFD analysis. The wing was prepared for CFD using finite element analysis to produced morphed wing bodies for a 0, 10, 20, and 30-degree trailing edge deflection angles. A model was also produced of the same base airfoil (NACA 0018) with a hinged flap of 30% chord length deflected by the same amount to serve as a performance benchmark for the morphing wing. The main criteria used to evaluate the performance were the lift, drag, and lift-to-drag ratios. For the 0⁰ tests, the morphing wing had up to almost 29% higher drag at high speeds. The results showed that the 10⁰ deflection tests found up to a 115% increase in lift over the hinged flap design and a lift-to-drag ratio of up to 161% higher for the morphing wing. The 20⁰ and 30⁰ tests saw the lift advantage of the morphing wing decrease but on average across all tests, the morphing wing had a lift coefficient higher than the hinged flap by 43%. Additionally, for the large deflection tests the hinged flap had up to a 60.5% advantage in lift-to-drag ratio. The computational fluid dynamic analysis showed that due to the larger effective angle of attack and the step-down in the skin of the morphing wing, at larger deflection angles the flow would separate much earlier along the chord. Therefore, based on the analysis, the morphing wing would create a substantial performance and efficiency gains when wing trailing edge deflection was kept below 20⁰. This meant it would be suitable for stages of flight such as takeoff and climb. Planned future work aims to reduce the 0⁰ drag of the morphing wing as well as the early flow separation at high angles of deflection. It is assumed, that by scaling up the wing, the proportion of the step size will decrease dramatically and as a result would improve the flow characteristics. Additionally, the placement and rotational limits of the flexures can be tested further to optimize the morphed shape to reduce the severity of the adverse pressure gradient along the upper surface when in high deflection states. With continued work on improving the flow separation, this design proves promising for even high-deflection cases. Overall the V4 rib design and the accompanying compliant skin panel design were very successful for their initial tests.
    Design and Analysis of a Rocket-Deployed Flying-Wing UAV
    Design and Analysis of a Rocket-Deployed Flying-Wing UAV
    This undergraduate paper demonstrates the design, analysis, and manufacturing of a rocket deployable electric powered experimental unmanned aerial vehicle. The design process begins with defining the volume and dimensions of the allocated payload space for the UAV in the rocket. These dimensions are given by the aerostructures sub team in the Ryerson Rocketry Club. The dimensions given were used to determine the best configuration for the mission. The wing loading, power loading and endurance of the UAV are obtained from the constrained payload volume in the rocket and the avionics system of the of the UAV. The wing area, UAV weight and power requirements were calculated based on the previously determined values. The power requirement determines the motor size and propeller configuration. Aerodynamics, stability, and control were based the selected airfoil and obtained wing area. After completing the design, foam, additive manufacturing, and composite layups were used to create prototypes of the UAV. These prototypes were used to iterate the aircraft and address any immediate changes. The chosen design is a foldable flying wing, once deployed from the rocket has a wingspan of 70 inches, an aspect ratio of 13.35 and a surface area of 367 in2 . A prototype was created to prove the design feasibility of the UAV. The prototype proved to function as planned, capable of gliding, powered flight, and takeoff.
    Design of Electrically Powered Morphing Winglet
    Design of Electrically Powered Morphing Winglet
    Cycloidal and planetary gear drives are considered for the actuation of an electrically powered morphing winglet. A torque of 6723 N*m is required at the winglet hinge. The stepper motor selected as the electrical actuator is the HT34-487 stepper motor. This motor can provide a torque of approximately 6 N*m. The cycloidal drive consists of the selected stepper motor, a bevel gearbox, and a two-stage cycloidal gearbox. The bevel gearbox is used to change the axis of rotation of the stepper motor from span-wise direction to chord-wise direction. Stage one of the cycloidal gearbox contains an input shaft, two cycloidal disks with 180 degrees offset rotation, an eccentric cam and an output shaft. The cycloidal disks in stage one have 35 lobes, providing a gear ratio of 35:1. The second stage of the cycloidal gearbox consists of only one cycloidal disk with 34 lobes, providing a gear ratio of 34:1. The total gear ratio of the cycloidal drive is 1190:1. Material selection and FEA simulations are performed on the components in the cycloidal drive to ensure the selected materials can withstand the applied loads. A differential planetary gear drive is also considered to actuate an electrically powered morphing winglet. Spur gears are selected to be used as the sun and planet gears. A ratio of 180:1 is achieved in the planetary gear drive. Using gear tooth bending calculators, it is found that designing spur gears to withstand the loads of the electrically powered morphing winglet and to fit inside the dimensions of the wingbox is not feasible.